Publications The Effects of Bullying Among School-Aged Youth Bullying is one of the most prevalent and widely discussed topics pertaining to school safety and security. Bullying has been shown to have profound effects on youth which often continue into adulthood. Media discourse about the impact of bullying is anecdotal at best, and tends to focus on extreme cases where a student takes his or her life. However, there are many more cases of bullying that do not culminate in suicide.
Publications The Effects of Bullying Among School-Aged Youth Bullying is one of the most prevalent and widely discussed topics pertaining to school safety and security. Bullying has been shown to have profound effects on youth which often continue into adulthood.
Media discourse about the impact of bullying is anecdotal at best, and tends to focus on extreme cases where a student takes his or her life. However, there are many more cases of bullying that do not culminate in suicide. Research into the effects of bullying and causal relationships regarding bullying and its impact has been ongoing since the first systematic study of bullying accomplished in by Dan Olweus.
Bullying is defined by the Texas Education Code, Chapter 37, as engaging in written or verbal expression, expression through electronic means, or physical conduct that occurs on school property, at a school-sponsored or school-related activity, or in a vehicle operated by the district and that has the effect or will have the effect of physically harming a student, damaging a student's property, or placing a student in reasonable fear of harm to the student's person or of damage to the student's property; or is sufficiently severe, persistent, and pervasive enough that the action or threat creates an intimidating, threatening, or abusive educational environment for a student.
In addition, conduct must exploit an imbalance of power between the student perpetrator and the student victim through written or verbal expression or physical conduct; and interferes with a student's education or substantially disrupts the operation of a school. Bullying can be undertaken in several different methods e.
The most readily recognized version of bullying is face-to-face bullying. During face-to-face bullying one student directly bullies another student.
Group bullying occurs when multiple aggressors engage in bullying a student. These types of bullying can also be readily apparent to a trained observer. Cyberbullying is a recent development that has surfaced with the advancement of technological communication over the last decade.
Cyberbullying occurs when a student is bullied through social media, text-message, or other means of technologically based communication. The prevalence of bullying varies between findings. Rigby found that one of every six students experience bullying at schools.
These differences are most likely attributed to differences in operational definitions of what constitutes bullying.
Rivara: There needs to be much more attention on understanding the prevalence and effects of bullying among kids with disabilities or special needs, basically any child perceived as “different.” There is a need to use a uniform definition of bullying and monitor its prevalence. Stimulated by the pioneering work of Dan Olweus in Norway and Sweden, researchers from several nations -- Australia, Canada, England, Ireland, Japan, Norway, and the United States -- have begun to explore the nature, prevalence, and effects of bullying among school children. While all types of bullying can impact the social well-being of a victim, relationship bullying most readily fits within this set of harmful effects. Olwues () found bullying victims often lack friends in .
Regardless, bullying is a commonly occurring event that warrants continued research and discussion. The following section expounds on the literature by identifying various types of bullying, as well as provides a complete cursory explanation of the emotional, social, and physical harm of bullying. Beyond discussing the harm caused by bullying, the following section also recommends actions that schools can take to help students impacted by bullying.
However, one of the more easily understood typologies classifies bullying into three distinct categories: Physical bullying is based on anger and asserted through physical acts. These actions include hitting, shoving, and even kicking victims or damaging their property. Verbal bullying uses words to hurt and humiliate victims.
This is accomplished through name-calling, insulting, or persistent and harsh verbal teasing.
Lastly, relationship bullying occurs when rumors are spread about the victim. While relationship bullying is related to the verbal bullying, the distinct difference is relationship bullying intends to socially harm the victim through damaged relationships. It should be noted that bullying can be subtle or overt and range from mild to severe.
The classifications listed above may, and in most cases do, overlap. Emotional Harm of Verbal Bullying Depression, anxiety, bitterness, elevated levels of stress, as well as negative feelings of self-image and low self-esteem can all result from verbal bullying.
Although the majority of research into the effects of bullying focuses on short-term implications e. This study found that adults who were both victims and aggressors of bullying exhibit signs of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem well into adulthood.
These findings illustrate the lasting negative effects of being both a victim and aggressor of bullying. Social Harm of Relationship Bullying An important aspect of attending school is the proper development of social skills e.
However, students who are victims of bullying encounter difficulty with social development. While all types of bullying can impact the social well-being of a victim, relationship bullying most readily fits within this set of harmful effects.
Olwues found bullying victims often lack friends in the class and at school.
Students exposed to long-term bullying perceive the school environment as unfriendly, frightening, and often experience a major part of their school career feeling anxiety and insecurity.As a result of its advance effects on the victims, bullying has attracted universal attraction from the media, school authorities, parents, and researchers.
Many studies have been done in different schools situated in different locations all over the world examining the prevalence of harassment among the teenagers in schools and other places. Stimulated by the pioneering work of Dan Olweus in Norway and Sweden, researchers from several nations -- Australia, Canada, England, Ireland, Japan, Norway, and the United States -- have begun to explore the nature, prevalence, and effects of bullying among school children.
Bullying Has Lingering Effects on Children's Mental Health. "The effects of bullying can snowball over time," said study researcher Laura Bogart, a . Although kids who are bullied are at risk of suicide, bullying alone is not the cause.
|Typology of School Bullies||Serious — threat of physical harm or emotional or psychological hurt Equal emotional reaction Strong emotional reaction on part of the victim Not seeking power or attention Seeking power or control Not trying to get something Trying to gain material things or power Remorseful — takes responsibility Effort to solve the problem No effort to solve the problem Why focus on bullying?|
|Emotional Harm of Verbal Bullying||Get a complete paper today.|
|The Effects of Bullying Among School-Aged Youth | Texas School Safety Center||In terms of when each bullying incident occurs, it can happen at any time two students are in proximity of one another, though again, this usually happens at or near school and consequently will likely happen during or around school hours. For instance, physical aggression starts out higher among students and then decreases consistently, with 18 percent of children aged reporting experience with physical aggression, but only 10 percent of children aged reporting it.|
Many issues contribute to suicide risk, including depression, problems at home, and trauma history. Additionally, specific groups have an increased risk of suicide, including American Indian and Alaskan Native, Asian American, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.
It occurs among school-age children, so although bullying behavior may be found across ages, the technical definition of a bully is a child who engages in such behavior. The bully and bullied both understand the bully to have more power in the situation, even if other factors are “equal.”.
While all types of bullying can impact the social well-being of a victim, relationship bullying most readily fits within this set of harmful effects. Olwues () found bullying victims often lack friends in .