Special theory of relativity German-born physicist Albert Einstein introduces his special theory of relativity, which states that the laws of nature are the same for all observers and that the speed of light is not dependent on the motion of its source. Einstein wins the Nobel Prize in physics in for his work on the photoelectric effect. Neutron is discovered English physicist and Nobel laureate James Chadwick exposes the metal beryllium to alpha particles and discovers the neutron, an uncharged particle.
Stealth technology, small cargo hold, and a propulsion bus with high acceleration You get the idea. A warship's payload section can include anti-spacecraft weaponsorbital bombardment weapons for revolt suppression type spacecraft as wellweapon mountsweapon control stations, combat information centerarmorpoint defenseweapon heat radiators and heat sinksand anything else that can be used to mission-kill enemy spacecraft.
Pirate ships and privateers might forgo defenses if they only expect to be engaging unarmed cargo ships. But they will regret this if they have the misfortune to encounter armed enemy convoy escort ships or are surprised by a Q-ship.
One section is the propulsion bus — drive engine, reactor if any, solar wings or radiator fins, propellant tankage, and a keel structure to hold it all together. The other is the payload section that it pushes along from world to world.
There are both conceptual and economic reasons to treat them separately. Conceptually, because a propulsion bus might push many different payloads for different missions, such as light payloads on fast orbits versus heavy payloads on slow orbits.
A little noticed but important feature of deep space craft is that you cannot overload them.
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They do not sink, or crash at the end of the runway, or even bottom out their suspension. They merely perform more sluggishly, with reduced acceleration and for a given propellant supply less delta v. Conceptual logic is also economic logic.
The outfits that build drive buses would like to sell them to lots of different customers for a broad range of assignments. This is not necessarily an argument for true modular construction, with drive buses hitching up to payloads on an ad hoc basis like big-rig trucks and trailers.
Building things to couple and uncouple adds complexity, mass, and cost — plug connectors, docking collars, and so forth. Moreover, drive buses intended for manned ships need to be human-rated, not just with higher safety factors but provision for supplying housekeeping power to the hab, etc.
But these things, along with differing sizes or number of propellant tanks, and so forth, can all be minor variations in a drive bus design family. The payload we are most interested in is, naturally, us. The main habitat section of a deep space ship closely resembles a space station.
It is likely that habs intended for prolonged missions will be spun, for health, efficiency, and all round convenience. The design of a spin hab is dominated by the spin structure and — unless you spin the entire ship — the coupling between the spin and nonspin sections.
Because ships' spin habs have the features of stations they may be used as stations, and again we can imagine design families, with some variants intended for ships and others as orbital platforms having only stationkeeping propulsion.
Habs are the one major part of a deep space ship that correspond fairly well to our concept of a hull. Spin habs are entirely different in shape, but the shape is constrained; once you build it you can't easily modify it, beyond adding another complete spin section.
For those with bank cards at the ready, buying a deep space ship might be not unlike buying a computer. If your mission needs are fairly standard, you check off options on a menu.
Those with more specialized requirements can select major components — perhaps a drive bus from one manufacturer, a main crew hab from another, along with custom payload sections, service bays, and so forth, assembled to your specifications.
In fact, both technology and probable historical development suggest that fabrication and overall assembly will be two distinct phases, carried on in different places, quite unlike either shipyard or aircraft assembly practice.Atomic Shield: A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) - Volume II, - Terrible Responsibility, Call to Arms, Nuclear Arsenal, Quest for the Super (Hydrogen Bomb) Kindle Edition.
For some good general notes on designing spacecraft in general, read Rick Robinson's Rocketpunk Manifesto essay on Spaceship Design Also worth reading are Rick's essays on constructing things in space and the price of a spaceship.
For some good general notes on making a fusion powered spacecraft, you might want to read Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear.
Energy: A Human History [Richard Rhodes] on alphabetnyc.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Pulitzer Prize- and National Book Award-winning author Richard Rhodes reveals the fascinating history behind energy transitions over time—wood to coal to oil to . Nuclear weapons possess enormous destructive power from nuclear fission or combined fission and fusion reactions.
Building on scientific breakthroughs made during the s, the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada collaborated during World War II, in what was called the Manhattan Project, to counter the suspected Nazi German atomic bomb project. Energy: A Human History [Richard Rhodes] on alphabetnyc.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Pulitzer Prize- and National Book Award-winning author Richard Rhodes reveals the fascinating history behind energy transitions over time—wood to coal to oil to electricity and beyond. People have lived and died. In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).The fission process often produces free neutrons and gamma photons, and releases a very large amount of energy even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay.