Take a moment and Google up reasons for project failure. What is the common reason you would find in top few?
An unsolved problem analyzed in depth and some approaches recommended to solution. Heffter In the immediate post-war period, the word "requirement" was seldom heard in intelligence circles, and what we now know as collection requirements were managed in a very offhand way.
Today this subject is well to the fore, its importance acknowledged by everyone. Looking back, it is possible to see certain steps by which this reversal of things came about. First there was a time when many people, both collectors and consumers, saw no need for requirements Collecting requirement all-when information was believed to be there for the plucking, and the field intelligence officer was considered to need no Collecting requirement in deciding what to pluck.
This period overlapped and merged quickly into a second one in which requirements were recognized as desirable but were not thought to present any special problem. Perhaps the man in the field Collecting requirement, after all, need some guidance; if so, the expert in Washington had only to jot down a list of questions and all would be well.
A third phase began when it was recognized that requirements were an integral and necessary part of the intelligence process and that they needed to be fostered and systematized. Committees were set up, priorities authorized, channels established, forms devised, control numbers assigned.
The fourth and most interesting phase, which is still with us, might be called the phase of specialized methodologies.
The harsh difficulties of intelligence collection against the Sino-Soviet Bloc have driven home the realization that the way a requirement is conceived and drawn, the way it gets at its ultimate objective, the details it includes, the alternatives it provides, the discretion it permits, and a dozen other features may largely predetermine its chances of fulfillment.
Specialists in many fields, intent on solving immediate, concrete problems, have created new types of requirements peculiarly adapted to their own aims and circumstances. Another may be cast in the mold of a collection method-photography, ELINT, exploitation of legal travel.
Subjects, areas, sources, access, communications-all have put their mark on the writing of requirements. If we turn from the past and speculate on the future, we can hardly doubt that it will be one of intensified effort.
For it is more and more evident that the answers we get are intimately conditioned by the questions we ask, and that asking the right questions--the business of requirements--is no spare-time job. But what direction should this intensified effort take? Undoubtedly the healthy specialization and experimentalism of the present should and will continue.
But by itself this is not an adequate program. The problems of requirements are not all special problems. Some of them are central to the very nature of the requirements process. One cannot help feeling that too little of the best thinking of the community has gone into these central problems--into the development, in a word, of an adequate theory of requirements.
It would be untrue to imply that nobody has been concerning himself with the broad questions. Much expert thought has gone into the revisions of guidance papers for the community at large or for major segments of it. But there is often a conspicuous hiatus between these high-level documents and the requirements produced on the working level.
Dealing with general matters has itself become a specialty. We lack a vigorous exchange of views between generalists and specialists, requirements officers and administrators, members of all agencies, analysts in all intelligence fields, practitioners of all collection methods, which might lead at least to a clarification of ideas and at best to a solution of some common problems.
It is the aim of this paper to incite, if possible, such an exchange of views. It offers as candidate for the title of Number One Requirements Problem the problem of priorities. More exactly, it is the problem of how to formulate needs and priorities in such a way as to facilitate the satisfaction of needs in a degree roughly proportionate to their priorities, through the most effective use of the collection means available.
This problem is one which deserves and will probably reward the most searching study that can be given it. The present paper cannot claim to be such a study.
It seeks, however, to demonstrate that there is such a general problem; that it is amenable to general analysis; that it must be examined not merely as a problem in administration but as one in analytical method; and finally that it is one with which the individual intelligence officer can effectively concern himself.
The few specific proposals in the following pages are incidental to these general aims. We may begin with a provisional definition of a collection requirement as simply "a statement of information to be collected.
Kinds of Requirement In the management of collection requirements there are certain persistent tendencies that reflect the divergent interests of the participants. There is the tendency of the analyst to publish a list of all his needs in the hope that somebody will satisfy them.
There is the tendency of the theorist and the administrator to want a closely knit system whereby all requirements can be fed into a single machine, integrated, ranged by priorities, and allocated as directives to all parts of the collection apparatus.
And there is the tendency of the collector to demand specific, well-defined requests for information, keyed to his special capabilities.The ones to be used depend on the tailoring considerations based on various factors such as existing requirement gathering practices in the organization, lessons learned from previous projects, industry best practices, resource availability and so on.
Figure: Some of the techniques used in collecting requirements. Requirements collection "timing and scope" will determine the data collection methods to be used. Goals: What are your requirements collection goals? Do you need to validate and verify pre-defined requirements assumptions, or do you need to gather requirements feedback at the broadest levels possible?
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Collecting Requirements is a crucial activity in project management.
Because requirements of a project define the project scope. And any weakness in requirements management will cause scope issues respectively. Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank accepts deposits, makes loans or investments, but is required to hold reserves equal to only a fraction of its deposit liabilities.
Reserves are held as currency in the bank, or as balances in the bank's accounts at the central alphabetnyc.comonal-reserve banking is the current form of banking practiced in most countries worldwide.