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Earlier efforts[ edit ] Much of the history of computer language design during the s traces its history to the ALGOL 60 language.
ALGOL was developed during the s with the explicit goal to be able to clearly describe algorithms. It included a number of features for structured programming that remain common in languages to this day.
Shortly after its Dissertation calculator umn, in Wirth began working on his dissertation with Helmut Weber on the Euler programming language.
Its primary goal was to add dynamic lists and types, allowing it to be used in roles similar to Lisp. The language was published in By this time, a number of problems in ALGOL had been identified, notably the lack of a standardized string system. The group tasked with maintaining the language had begun the ALGOL X process to identify improvements, calling for submissions.
Wirth and Tony Hoare submitted a conservative set of modifications to add strings and clean up some of the syntax.
The complexity of this language led to considerable difficulty producing high-performance compilers, and it was not widely used in the industry. This left an opening for newer languages. Pascal[ edit ] Pascal was influenced by the ALGOL W efforts, with the explicit goals of producing a language that would be efficient both in the compiler and at run-time, allow for the development of well-structured programs, and to be useful for teaching students structured programming.
One of the early successes for language was the introduction of UCSD Pascala version that ran on a custom operating system that could be ported to different platforms.
A key platform was the Apple IIwhere it saw widespread use. This led to the use of Pascal becoming the primary high-level language used for development in the Apple Lisaand later, the Macintosh.
Parts of the original Macintosh operating system were hand-translated into Motorola assembly language from the Pascal sources. Apollo Computer used Pascal as the systems programming language for its operating systems beginning in Variants of Pascal have also frequently been used for everything from research projects to PC games and embedded systems.
Newer Pascal compilers exist which are widely used. This led initially to Clascalintroduced in As the Lisa program faded and was replaced by the Mac, a further version known as Object Pascal was created.
This was introduced on the Macintosh in as part of the MacApp application frameworkand became Apple's primary development language into the early s.
The Object Pascal extensions were added to Turbo Pascal with the release of version 5. Free Pascal is an open source, cross-platform alternative. Pascal has its roots in the ALGOL 60 language, but also introduced concepts and mechanisms which on top of ALGOL's scalars and arrays enabled programmers to define their own complex structured datatypes, and also made it easier to build dynamic and recursive data structures such as lists, trees and graphs.
Important features included for this were records, enumerations, subranges, dynamically allocated variables with associated pointers, and sets. To make this possible and meaningful, Pascal has a strong typing on all objects, which means that one type of data cannot be converted or interpreted as another without explicit conversions.
Similar mechanisms are standard in many programming languages today.Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in –69 and published in , as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data alphabetnyc.com is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal..
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Please see individual pages for the information. Comprehensive reference page for all chapters of the Fundamentals of Environmental Measurements. Please see individual pages for the information. Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in –69 and published in , as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data alphabetnyc.com is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal..
Pascal was developed on the pattern of the .