A study of the basic accounting concepts and procedures underlying the organization and reporting of financial information.
Personal use only; commercial use is strictly prohibited. Further, the conceptual analysis that has been thrown up from the limited work that is available focuses mostly on Euro-American experiences with protest music.
However, in societies where most music is not written down or notated formally, the discussions on the distinct role that music can play as an art form, as a vehicle through which questions of artistic representation can be addressed, and the specific questions that are addressed and responded to when music is used for political purposes, have been reflected in the music itself, and not always in formal debates.
It is only in using the music itself as text and a whole range of information around its creation—often, largely anecdotal and highly context dependent—that such music can be understood.
Doing so across a whole range of non-Western experiences brings out the role of music in societal change quite distinctly from the Euro-American cases. Discussions are presented about the informed perceptions about what protest music is and should be across varied, yet specific experiences.
It is based on the literature that has come out of the Euro-American world as well as from parts that experienced European colonialism and made the transition to post-colonial contexts in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
If little systematic investigation into the relation of music to culture or society Genre borrowing and political message in a whole has been made, even less effort has been expended on understanding the relationship between music and politics. This discontent has, in varied historical and geographical contexts, been expressed through words, without words, through appraisal, evaluation, and often rejection of certain canonical forms, and through creation of new forms.
Further, structures of authority have used music as a medium or mode for transmitting political information and values, mobilizing the population, evoking and sustaining pride and identity, and legitimizing patterns of authority.
Despite there being a long history of the connection between music and politics, in the role of music as a medium or an instrument of political communication, in critiquing existing social contexts and norms or in expressing protest against those norms, the corpus of work on music and politics has been scant.
It is necessary to make a qualification here. This point, about the corpus of work on music and politics not being substantial, is being made for politics and protest as manifest through collective political movements and the music of protest that arises out of such political mobilizations.
French theory, through the work of thinkers such as Ranciere and Nancyto name two, has been concerned with the relationship of music to society, the place of listening with philosophies and cultures of listening, and the place of the sonorous in being and experience.
This essay is concerned specifically with protest music arising from politically challenging moments and movements, and the analysis is based on the processes of music making for such purposes.
What is protest music? Within the larger genre of political music, protest music or the music of resistance is a distinct category, encompassing the use of music in politics and as politics. Every period of social upheaval gives birth to songs of discontent.
Some songs are crafted specifically as rallying cries to garner support for a cause or to broadcast a grievance, whereas others express or describe conditions in society that give rise to the discontent.
The expressions can be based on the individual, can be part of collectives or musical communities, or part of organized political movements. Each period also produces people who, apart from bringing in their everyday experiences and talents into music making, elucidate clearly the reasons why they produce or reject music of particular types.
For artists, often, political discourse and the momentous nature of political upheaval become a medium for articulating what might be primarily aesthetic positions as political ones, and this shapes the nature of protest music that is produced.
Much of the vibrant history, as well as diversity of the genre of protest music, is unknown today, including among practitioners or activists who compose and perform protest songs.
Apart from the stereotyping of the protest song, the low levels of attention and, in fact, denigration have been seen in the case of popular music in general. Many forms of popular music, such as jazz, rock, rap, and so on, which have contained within their history and practice strong elements of protest, have been dismissed as inferior music and often dangerous, using ostensibly objective criteria of structure, style, skills, and techniques.
In turn, the forms of protest music have been determined as responses to such critiques and as a conscious attempt to challenge the structures of the canons.
One of the reasons for the neglect of studying the relationship between music and politics, or specifically protest, arises from the nature of music scholarship that has originated from the West, which in turn is attributable to particular historical factors governing the development of Western classical music.
A perusal of the actual history and experience of protest music shows it as being a highly varied and historically evolved kind of music, and the stereotypical protest song as being a particular type within the larger genre.
It becomes necessary and possible, given the wide range and variety that exists, to argue for the legitimacy of protest music as meriting analysis on its own terms, as music.
In practice, protest through music has seen, historically, the adoption of extremely diverse forms across cultures; the actual range and depth of this category of music is extensive, because it is difficult to arrive at a simple set of principles that constitute the category of protest music.
The work that we know of, even if it is remarkably scant in comparison to the actual material that exists, has two characteristics: Two, the focus of scholarly work has, to a large extent, been on individual genres and their use in politics. For example, Bennett et al.
Barker, who reviews conceptual issues that have arisen in analysis of protest music, bases his own research on the American counterculture, and Drott describes ways in which rock, jazz, and contemporary music all responded to the events of in France, often in contradictory ways.
However, in societies where most music is not written down or notated formally, the discussions on the distinct role that music can play as an art form, as a vehicle through which questions of artistic representation can be addressed, and the specific questions that are addressed and responded to in using music for political purposes, have been reflected in the music itself and not always in formal debates.
It is only in using the music itself as text, and a whole range of information around its creation, often, largely anecdotal and highly context-dependent, that such music can be understood.The Host embodies political messages both political conditions inside Korea and its relationship with United States.
Bong shows an ambivalent relationship between South Korea and United States by borrowing Hollywood genre in his films. American Lit midterm. STUDY. followed by cultural borrowing, political wrangling, and resourceful exploitation, by all the peoples brought into contact with one another Which of the following was NOT a genre or type of text that appeared regularly in the body of literature produced by sixteenth-century Europeans involved in the.
Agricultural Education. AGRI Interdisciplinary Agricultural Science and Technology. This course is designed to develop competencies of agricultural science teachers to teach essential elements in agricultural business, agricultural mechanization, animal science, and horticulture and crop science.
About us. John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent, family-owned academic publisher headquartered in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. More. No Alternative was Jonesy's debut album, and its title track best summed up their aspirations of fusing improvisational jazz to prog rock with barely a thought to commercial consequences.
A muscular piece with a tough political message, it spills back and forth between prog and jazz over a stop-start rhythm. Equally socially conscious is 9/ Constitutional Redemption: Political Faith in an Unjust World [Jack M. Balkin] on alphabetnyc.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Political constitutions, hammered out by imperfect human beings in periods of intense political controversy.