They relate analytic methods to research goals and always keep an eye on matters of interpretation and evaluation that give meaning to quantitative and statistical results.
Applications[ edit ] For example, Sociolinguistics in alalak island sociolinguist might determine through study of social attitudes that a particular vernacular would not be considered appropriate language use in a business or professional setting.
Sociolinguists might also study the grammarphoneticsvocabularyand other aspects of this sociolect much as dialectologists would study the same for a regional dialect.
The study of language variation is concerned with social constraints determining language in its contextual environment. Code-switching is the term given to the use of different varieties of language in different social situations.
William Labov is often regarded as the founder of the study of sociolinguistics. He is especially noted for introducing the quantitative study of language variation and change,  making the sociology of language into a scientific discipline.
Traditional sociolinguistic interview[ edit ] Sociolinguistic interviews are an integral part of collecting data for sociolinguistic studies. There is an interviewer, who is conducting the study, and a subject, or informantwho is the interviewee.
In order to get a grasp on a specific linguistic form and how it is used in the dialect of the subject, a variety of methods are used to elicit certain registers of speech. There are five different styles, ranging from formal to casual.
The most formal style would be elicited by having the subject read a list of minimal pairs MP. Minimal pairs are pairs of words that differ in only one phoneme, such as cat and bat. Having the subject read a word list WL will elicit a formal register, but generally not as formal as MP.
The reading passage RP style is next down on the formal register, and the interview style IS is when an interviewer can finally get into eliciting a more casual speech from the subject. During the IS the interviewer can converse with the subject and try to draw out of them an even more casual sort of speech by asking him to recall childhood memories or maybe a near death experience, in which case the subject will get deeply involved with the story since strong emotions are often attached to these memories.
Of course, the most sought-after type of speech is the casual style CS. This type of speech is difficult if not impossible to elicit because of the Observer's Paradox. The closest one might come to CS in an interview is when the subject is interrupted by a close friend or family member, or perhaps must answer the phone.
CS is used in a completely unmonitored environment where the subject feels most comfortable and will use their natural vernacular without overtly thinking about it. Fundamental concepts[ edit ] While the study of sociolinguistics is very broad, there are a few fundamental concepts on which many sociolinguistic inquiries depend.
Speech community Speech community is a concept in sociolinguistics that describes a distinct group of people who use language in a unique and mutually accepted way among themselves.
This is sometimes referred to as a Sprechbund. To be considered part of a speech community, one must have a communicative competence.
That is, the speaker has the ability to use language in a way that is appropriate in the given situation. It is possible for a speaker to be communicatively competent in more than one language. Members of speech communities will often develop slang or jargon to serve the group's special purposes and priorities.
Community of Practice allows for sociolinguistics to examine the relationship between socialization, competence, and identity. Since identity is a very complex structure, studying language socialization is a means to examine the micro-interactional level of practical activity everyday activities.
The learning of a language is greatly influenced by family but it is supported by the larger local surroundings, such as school, sports teams, or religion.
Speech communities may exist within a larger community of practice. Prestige sociolinguistics Crucial to sociolinguistic analysis is the concept of prestige; certain speech habits are assigned a positive or a negative value, which is then applied to the speaker.
This can operate on many levels. An important implication of the sociolinguistic theory is that speakers 'choose' a variety when making a speech act, whether consciously or subconsciously. The terms acrolectal high and basilectal low are also used to distinguish between a more standard dialect and a dialect of less prestige.
A social network is another way of describing a particular speech community in terms of relations between individual members in a community. A network could be loose or tight depending on how members interact with each other. A multiplex community is one in which members have multiple relationships with each other.
The looseness or tightness of a social network may affect speech patterns adopted by a speaker. Recently, social networks have been formed by the Internet, through chat rooms, Facebook groups, organizations, and online dating services. Differences according to class[ edit ] Further information: Linguistic insecurity Sociolinguistics as a field distinct from dialectology was pioneered through the study of language variation in urban areas.Sociolinguistics in Alalak Island.
dialect, or, in some instances, even the choice of a single word. According to Fishman, for instance, socially, the language use involves “Who speaks, what language, to whom, when and where” (Fishman, ).
Sociolinguistic is the study of language. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics: Ethnographies - Words Genie the Wild Child - Words Chiu-Chow-Cantonese Code-Switching Within a Hnog Kong Domestic Discourse.
Sociolinguistics in Alalak Island.
Topics: Language, This research is taken place in Sewangi Island, Alalak, South Kalimantan. Alalak is one of the regions in South Kalimantan.
Mostly, the people in Alalak are Banjarese which uses Banjarese as their first language. Nowadays there is a lot of research on code-switching phenomenon within three main perspectives which include: linguistics, sociolinguistics, and more recently, psycholinguistics.
On the basis of these perspectives, various universal models and theories on CS and CM have been proposed and formulated.