Emigration from England often was not directly sponsored by the government but by private groups of individuals whose chief motive was profit. The first English colony was founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in To help populate it, Penn actively recruited immigrants, among them many religious dissenters, e. Quakers, Mennonites, Amish, Moravians and Baptists.
Sir William Berkeley, one of the proprietors and governor of Virginia, had appointed as governor of Albemarle, the northern portion of Carolina, William Drummond, a Scotch Presbyterian clergyman, whom he afterward put to death for following Bacon.
Samuel Stephens, succeeding Drummond incalled an assembly to frame laws and erelong the settlement was in a steadily growing condition.
A law was passed with a view of attracting settlers. It exempted all newcomers from paying taxes for a year, outlawed any debts they may have contracted elsewhere, and provided that for five years no one could be sued for any cause that might have arisen outside the colony.
This plan had the effect of attracting many of a worthless class, so that the Albemarle settlement came to be known in Virginia as "Rogues' Harbor". Governor Stephens and his successor made strenuous but fruitless efforts to put the Fundamental Constitutions in force.
The Navigation Laws were later put into operation, and they greatly interfered with a lucative trade with New England. The people were heavily taxed and at length, inthey broke out in an insurrection led by John Culpeper, who seized the government and held it for two years.
This followed in the train of the Bacon Rebellion in Virginia. The proprietors next sent Seth Sothel, now a member of the company, to govern the colony. Sothel proved to be a knave; he plundered the proprietors and the people most shamelessly, and after five years of turbulent misrule he was driven into exile -- the same year that witnessed the Revolution in England and the exile of James II.
Owing to incompetent and thieving governors, appointed through favoritism and not fitness for the office, and to abortive attempts to introduce the Fundamental Constitutions on an unwilling people, the Albemarle colony did not prosper, and in the population was but half what it had been fifteen years before, while the Clarendon colony planted by Yeamans on the Cape Fear had been wholly abandoned.
Meantime another colony had been planted at the mouths of the Ashley and Cooper rivers as will be noticed under South Carolina. These two surviving colonies, several hundred miles apart, now began to be called North and South Carolina.
Their governments were combined into one, and better times were now at hand. InJohn Archdale, a good Quaker, became governor of both Carolinas, and from this time the settlements were much more prosperous that before.
Afterhowever, North Carolina was again in turmoil, the causes being bad governors and continued attempts to establish the Church of England at the expense of the Dissenters, more than half of whom were Quakers.
During this first decade of the eighteenth century, settlers came in increased numbers. The white population was now about five thousand; Albemarle settlement had extended many miles into the forest; this involved encroachment on the soil of the native red man -- and it brought its troubles.
In the autumn of a terrible Indian massacre took place in North Carolina. Hundreds of settlers fell victims of the merciless tomahawk.
The chief sufferers were the inoffensive Germans at New Berne, where one hundred and thirty people were slaughtered within two hours after the signal for the massacre was given. But the people rallied, and, receiving aid from South Carolina, they, led by Colonels John Barnwell and James Moore, hunted the red men from place to place and in a great battle near the Neuse destroyed four hundred of their warriors.
At length the Tuscaroras, whose ancestors had come from New Yorkresolved to abandon their southern home and return to the land of their fathers. They removed in and joined the Iroquois or Five Nations of New Yorkand that confederation was afterward known as the Six Nations.
The people of North Carolina were, in the main, honest and well meaning, and when not goaded by profligate rulers and unjust laws, quiet and peaceable. It is true there were many who had fled from other colonies to escape debts or the hand of the law; but a large portion of society was composed of sturdy, Christian men and women.
Religion soon found a footing here as in the other colonies, though there was no resident clergyman in the colony before The Church of England was supported by taxation, but the Dissenters were in the majority. The Quakers especially became numerous, George Fox himself, the founder of the sect, having visited the place and made many converts.
Inthe lords proprietors sent out Charles Eden for governor, and he was the best and ablest governor the colony ever had. But on his death, eight years later, the colony again fell into unworthy hands. A period of great turbulence followed when, inall the proprietors save one having sold their interests to the Crown, North Carolina and South Carolina were separated and each was henceforth a royal colony.
There was for many years a steady inflow of Germans from the Rhine by way of Pennsylvaniaand, beginning abouta still larger stream of Scotch- Irish from Ulster.
During the first sixty-six years -- the entire proprietary period -- the people of North Carolina clung to the seaboard. But now the eastern slope of the Alleghanies was rapidly peopled, chiefly by Scotch-Irish and Germans, with a large sprinkling of shiftless "poor whites" from Virginia.
The settlement of the region of the "back counties" had little connection with those of an earlier date on the coast, and the colony was practically divided into two distinct settlements with a broad belt of forest between them.
The conditions of life were very different in the two. The back country was non-slaveholding, and the economic conditions were were similar to those of the northern colonies; while the coast settlements were slaveholding and were marked by all the characteristics of southern life, except the aristocratic feature.
The products of the colony were at first tobacco along the Virginia border, rice on the Cape Fear River, and grain, cattle, and especially swine in both these sections.
But at length the great pine forests began to yield their wealth, and before the Revolution tar, turpentine, and lumber became the chief products of North Carolina. Of all the thirteen colonies, North Carolina was the least commercial, the most provincial, the farthest removed from European influences, and its wild forest life the most unrestrained.
Every colony had its frontier, its borderland between civilization and savagery; but North Carolina was composed entirely of frontier.The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of the Americas from the start of colonization in the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of America.
In the late 16th century, England, France, Spain, and the Netherlands launched major colonization programs in eastern North America. The first colony was founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in Many of the people who settled in the New World came to escape religious persecution.
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American Revolution, also called United States War of Independence or American Revolutionary War, (–83), insurrection by which 13 of Great Britain’s North American colonies won political independence and went on to form the United States of America.