Dr Douglas Walker 30 has, together with fellow psychiatrists Brenda 33Hugo in his late thirtiesand Zimmerman in his twentiesset up a commune, to which they will invite mental patients for humane and gentle therapy. The first is Mary Barnes 42who has a history of mental illness and imagines that she is a nurse. They are joined by American psychiatrist Eddie 25 with his new girlfriend Beth. When Mary refuses to eat, Eddie, fearing that she may have to be returned to hospital, wins her over with games.
Invented in ancient Greece, the astrolabe is a sophisticated tool for observing the position of the stars. In early Islam, when scientific studies flourished, astrolabes were vastly improved and came to be used to determine the correct times for Muslim prayers as well.
Through Islamic Spain, the astrolabe was introduced to Europe, and in the Middle Ages sailors, both Islamic and Christian, employed the device to stay the course of their sea routes.
The Indian Sanskrit and Persian Pahlavi sources taught medieval astronomers methods for calculating the position of heavenly bodies, and for creating tables recording the movement of the sun, the moon, and the five known planets. This led to the refinement of scientific instruments, an improvement in methods for making observations, and the creation of new calendrical systems.
The most influential Greek texts were more concerned with creating a model of the universe and the Thematic essay belief systems islam of the heavenly bodies within it, but the literature proposed two very different approaches to this problem.
On the other hand, the work ofPtolemy 85—A. Between the ninth and eleventh centuries, Islamic astronomers focused on criticizing and improving the geometrical models of Ptolemy.
Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi — was one of the most important scientists doing this work, supported by the Buyid sultancAdud al-Dawla, to whom he dedicated hisIllustrated Book of the Fixed Stars.
Other important scientists of the time include al-Biruni —who wroteal-Qanun al-Mascudi, dedicated to Sultan Masud of Ghazna, on the topics of astronomy and solar, lunar, and planetary motions; and Ibn al-Haytham known in Europe as Alhazen, d.
Astrolabe of cUmar ibn Yusuf al-Muzaffari, Rasulid period — The Study of Astrology Astrology seeks to predict the influence of the heavenly bodies on events on earth, relying on understanding the movement of the planets and the ability to calculate their positions in the future.
In this way, astrology was considered a branch of astronomy, and serious scientists such as Abu Macshar al-Balkhi —al-Biruni, and Nasir al-Din al-Tusi — all wrote astrological treatises. The number of medieval theologians, jurists, and philosophers who wrote anti-astrology tracts, however, indicates that it was controversial and not universally accepted as a scientific or ethical practice.
Many believed it was against the tenets of Islam to suggest that forces other than God could determine human events. This did not stop the practice of astrology—in fact, astrologers offered their services in bazaars, where anyone could pay for horoscope readings and predictions; and they were employed at royal courts, to help rulers decide such matters as when to announce an heir or launch a military campaign, or to predict the future state of their kingdoms.
Most astrologers learned their practice by studying with a master, acquiring a basic knowledge of astronomy and mathematics and the ability to use astronomical instruments. These interpretations were based on the large body of literature associated with astrology, from manuals for interpreting signs to treatises that ascribed certain personality traits to those born under each Zodiac sign.
These in turn influenced the artistic iconography of each sign, and so sample excerpts from theKitab al-Mawalid The Book of Nativities by Abu Mashar al-Balkhi, translated by Stefano Carboni, are included here with the objects bearing zodiacal imagery.
Abu Macshar known as Albumasar in Europewho also worked out a complex system of chronology, was considered a master of the discipline by later Arab scientists, and his works were later translated into Latin. The Zodiac in Art Because of the popularity of astrology in the medieval period, it became common to decorate objects with personifications of the planets and the Zodiac constellations.
This reflected the belief that objects with astrological decoration hadtalismanic powers—that is, they were capable of influencing the occult power of the planets and stars, and thus protected the owner from sickness, bad luck, or defeat.
The symbols the Arab and Iranian astronomers used to represent each Zodiac constellation were derived from the images ancient Greek astronomers had used to describe them. These were a ram known as the sign Aries ; a bull called Taurus ; twins called Gemin, ; a crab called Cancer ; a lion called Leo ; a female figure called Virgo ; scales called Libra ; a scorpion called Scorpio ; an archer called Sagittarius ; a kid goat called Capricorn ; a water-pourer called Aquarius ; and two fish called Pisces.
Objects such as these were especially popular from the late twelfth to the fourteenth century in Egypt, Syria, and Iran. Several are inscribed with the names and titles of rulers, and it is believed that on objects so closely associated with a particular ruler, representations of the sun, planets, and stars also symbolized the power of that patron.
In representing the Zodiac constellations, artists of this period mostly copied Greek models. The personifications of the planets, on the other hand, had few iconographic precedents, and so imagery for each evolved from the characteristics each was attributed in the Islamic astrological writings, including a color, an occupation, and a day of the week.
Thus Mercury was a scribe, depicted as a young man writing on a scroll of paper; Venus was a female musician, shown playing an instrument; Saturn was a dark-skinned old man holding a pickax; Jupiter was a sage or a judge, wearing a turban; Mars was a warrior, holding a sword and a severed head; and the Sun and the Moon were human figures holding a sun disk and a crescent, respectively.
Depicted as a figure flanked by snakes with dragon heads, Jawzahr appears on objects alone and with the signs of the Zodiac.scientific research papers database search 6a homework helper app review ap argumentative essay judicial killing romeo and juliet assignment full text balcony scene.
Considering Upper Canada College in Toronto? alphabetnyc.com is the trusted source on the best private schools in Ontario. European history of the past century is full of examples of philosophers, writers, and jurists who, whether they lived in democratic, communist, or fascist societies, supported and defended totalitarian principles and horrific regimes.
The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnipotent, omnibenevolent and omniscient God (see theism).
An argument from evil attempts to show that the co-existence of evil and such a God is unlikely or impossible. Attempts to show the contrary have traditionally been discussed under the heading of .
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