Prepare an article on the outcomes of your research. Usually the early phases of a graduate program proceed in clear and very structured ways. The beginning phases of a graduate program proceed in much the same manner as an undergraduate degree program. There are clear requirements and expectations, and the graduate student moves along, step by step, getting ever closer to the completion of the program.
In item analysis, item statistics difficulty, discrimination for each item or question provide a means of assessing the quality of the test items. This study demonstrates the use of the classical item analysis to evaluate the quality of multiple choices Chemistry test items used in Kano state qualifying examination in July Forty items Chemistry test administered to students at the end of their senior secondary school two SSII was subjected to the classical analysis using sample of students, the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences, version 20 SPSS 20V was used to determine the discrimination and difficulty indices of the items and the classification of the items according to their item characteristics.
Similarly the results indicate a significant positive correlation between item difficulty and item discrimination indices. Introduction techniques and test score interpretation. Quality test design is impacted by many elements including format, length, Assessment of students is basic to teaching.
It is the most administration procedures, construction, validity and scoring important aspect of teaching and learning process, the major schema . Achievement test is use as a tool to assess the educational development efforts and direct the instruction magnitude of these changes.
Some teachers use formal . Moreover, the and through it determine their knowledge, abilities, skills or reliability of the test also depends upon the grading feelings. According to , test enables teachers and others consistency and discrimination between the students of using it to systematically data for the purpose of making different performance levels.
Thus the quality and comparisons across individuals, classes, schools, districts or effectiveness of a test depends upon the individual item. Whereas the teacher made tests developed and determine the quality of individual item, item analysis is used in classroom instruction by the teacher are more done after the administration and scoring of the preliminary popularly with the learners, standardized tests serve draft of the test on the selected sample.
Educational institutions effectiveness of individual test item in terms of its difficulty place a high reliance on test performance to make decisions level and its discrimination power i. Recent concern on the proper design, high and low achievers in a test.
Thus it Item analysis helps production, administration, analysis, reporting and in selecting the best test items in the final draft by retaining interpretation of tests has placed an increasing demand on the good and rejecting poor test items.
Similarly, it shows the test developers. Obviously, test quality is a high priority for need to review and modify the items in a test. Now more than ever, According to  a major concern in test construction is it is critical that tests are efficient and effective at measuring ensuring the reliability of test items, and one typical step in ability and those scores are reliable and precise measures of investigating reliability has been Classical Test Theory examinee ability.
Criteria used to establish test quality CTT item analysis. The classical item analysis essentially generally focus on the areas of test design, test analysis determines test homogeneity. That is, the more similar the items in a given test, the more likely they measure the same Volume 4 Issue 5, May www.
Error is reliability . However, CT item analyses statistics do not often assumed to be a random variable having a normal provide the necessary information on how examinees at distribution. Classical test theory CTT was the dominant different ability levels on the latent trait measured have approach until when Frederic Lord published his performed on an item .
Therefore, a more robust statistics doctoral dissertation on Latent Trait Theory. While CTT based on modern test theory has also been widely used in models test outcomes based on the linear relationship more recent test reliability investigations.
Since the focus of this study is on item analysis based on Theoretically CTT is simple and easy to apply that is why its CTT, it is important to explore the basic ideas involved in test statistics are still commonly used in test construction order to fully understand the approach.
Classical test theory process, however many researchers e. This is because item statistics characteristics of measurement instruments.
According to such as difficulty and discrimination indices are sample  CTT is a theory about test scores and focus is on three dependent.
In Item analysis is a process which examines student responses classical test theory, the model of measurement error is based to individual test items in order to assess the quality of those on the correlation coefficient.
The correlation coefficient, items as well as the quality of the test as a whole . Item developed by Charles Spearman, attempts to explain error analysis enables instructors to increase their test construction using two components: He further stated that, the by the students on a particular task and a true ability T goal is to help its developers to improve the instrument by which is the real potential in a student.
Test review boards and content Where, E is random error of measurement. The T and error score E. Assumptions of CTT performance of items considered individually either in The major assumptions underlines the CTT are a true relation to some external criterion or in relation to the scores and error scores are uncorrelated, b the average error remaining items on the test.
From purely statistical considerations, test objectives . Some of the researchers that have construction using CTT might often consist of selecting contributed immensely to the theory of test item analysis are those items with the best discrimination item-total Galton, Pearson, Spearman, and Thorndike.
Generally an correlation and which span a range of item difficulties. It may be as a result of:Basic Concepts in Item and Test Analysis Making fair and systematic evaluations of others' performance can be a challenging task.
Judgments cannot be made solely on the basis of intuition, haphazard guessing, or custom (Sax, ). CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. The Objective of The Research The goals of this research are to know the difficulty level and discriminating power of the items, to know the quality of the items, and to know the items .
Item analysis uses statistics and expert judgment to evaluate tests based on the quality of individual items, item sets, and entire sets of items, as well as the relationship of each item to other items.
In modern times, the dialectic of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis has been implemented across the world as a strategy for organizing expositional writing. For example, this technique is taught as a basic organizing principle in French schools: The French learn to .
Statistics Solutions is a dissertation editing service with expertise in every aspect of the dissertation from both a quantitative and qualitative approach. Item Analysis (Evaluate your own level) Be honest so I can help you!
Write Down: Research Questions and Thesis Look at Questions 1, 2, 3, and 4 If you got more than 1 of these wrong, say "I need more help".